The importance of the Office Telephone Equipment

Maybe the office telephone equipment, well, let's say a little time to fix!


  • bought many years (or decades!) Before
  • contains a lot of different makes of machine that has been put together in some way that the system
  • not completely reliable, and capable of supporting modern features like conferencing.

The hard choice

If any of it sounds familiar, it is realistic to face two choices:

· do nothing and hope the business phone system does not generate troubles for you (or perhaps – more troubles);

· replace it with a new system.


The modern business telephony system is a reliable vendor (for example, Siemens telephone systems) are typically quick to install, and there are a number of configurations available to support the needs of the smallest businesses up to the largest.

purchased a new system to ensure that no one is more reliable office equipment, telephone, but it also allows you to participate in the exchange of modern communication with customers and suppliers.

This can include things like:

  • video
  • conference call
  • call diversion and subsequent
  • exchange of data; etc

Making the right choice

Selecting a new system is something that is easy to get wrong, it is generally advisable szakkonziliárusi experts. There are several reasons, not least the fact that it is necessary to think a little bit about the future and make sure that the chosen system is capable of growing and developing in line with the business.

After today's best systems are not much use if it is unable to expansion in the future – will only be possible in tomorrow's technological dinosaur.


Of course, if the immediate problem is the frequent crises in the existing system, you may have to worry when things just keep choose the new system.

Due to a maintenance contract with a qualified supplier of phone service, you may have the worst at bay and buy yourself some breathing space.

that allow you to concentrate on finding a permanent solution to office telephone equipment situation.

Source by Lisa Settle

The effects of television on children – Summary


Today, television has become a very important part of our daily life, but particularly so in our children's lives. As we know, these days most of the larger families in many parts of the world, we have (or have access to) this magical screen.

Television is a very powerful and effective modern phenomenon that influenced the shaping of the future of several generations of children in many parts of the world.

children mimic the spoken word, and / or personality you happen to watch, so its impact can not be underestimated, regardless of the circumstances in which the child happens to be. This effect may be qualified or "good" or "bad" for the future development of the child.

parents and guardians have an important role to what channel or program your child can watch, how long and what time of day. All these factors are important in determining the shape of any future child environment.

positive and negative aspects of

Not long ago, most countries are only one or two television channels, not only that, but his playing time was limited, and itself transmission was limited to several hours a day / night.

Today there are a large number of television channels, and some of these channels are specialized programs only children. Many of these kids channels early morning to late at night (or even 24 basis), to the extent that many children find it difficult to quit is not missing a number of favorite programs.

is one of the negative effects of television sets children the effect of violence. The hero of a film or television soap operas may use violence to one or another reason, which certainly can be justified in the eyes of a child. That violent action to resolve the problem (s) to be considered normal, and the character, that is, the hero becomes the model for all production situations in which the child finds himself / herself in the future.

On the other hand, the educational effects are also excellent support learning and development, regardless of whether the children are in school or not. This learning process can be progress later in life, when the subject is the topic of education more seriously. Not forgetting that the process of learning, and education itself is much more attractive to the child, when used in place of television programs through a textbook, even if the main purpose of this program is pure entertainment, or the process of a scientific experiment under laboratory conditions .

Comparison of

is another factor that plays an important role in the development of children who watch television on a regular basis comparison . Children begin to compare the behavior of children and adults on television and behavior around them. They see two models of behavior, the behavior of the characters or the presenter of a television program – usually watched regularly – and the behavior of the parent / guardian and / or relatives who live in children. In many cases, but it is particularly so if the child is watching TV shows more often, a television presenter, TV or any characters can be seen regularly in many cases will act as a model for the child rather than the parent / guardian. If this causes disturb the baby when you compare the two different behaviors, this disturbance can affect the mental / emotional development of the child later in life.

The role of parents is obviously very important if your child needs help to sort out possible confusion that could occur. In many cases, the child assimilate the differences between the behavior of the model he / she is watching on TV, and the surrounding environment. Depending on the individual environment and the strength of the influence TV, a child can develop intellectually faster (or slower) than the average normal mental development.


Commercial advertising is also another factor that affects the children understand the environment and affect our mental and emotional development in different ways.

in many cases the parents / guardians are not worried about the impact of television advertising to children unless the children make demands to buy one or more products see me advertising. It is clear that the goal of advertising is to create this kind of demand. If not, the ad is not its original purpose. Advertising on television, as we know, the images with or without sound, which reflect – to be a great exaggeration – only the beneficial side of a particular product or service. A child looks at an ad product / she is interested in, the image of that product could be the starting point of a daydream to what will be wonderful to have such a "thing". Sometimes this can lead to frustration and anger daydreaming when the product is beyond the reach of the child, especially so when other children had seen or known of these children would have been it. Consequently, the end result will be manifested in the child's behavior immediately, or may be subsequently – shorter or longer.

He said that even though the real impact may be on television for children, the demands of the power of TV you do not need to exaggerate the extent to blame for all the children are not, or not only what he / she is watching on TV . This type of child is simply overkill responsibility is a way of shelving concerned parents / guardians, or family members to.


Television can be a source of the majority of children education and fun all over the world. At the same time, the TV can stop a child to mobile and expressing their vibrant energy (including vocabulary aspects) as they play, and contact with their natural environment. Television also gives a false message to the whole world, when interpreted in the mind of the child.

Generally, the effect is very real, and in some circumstances, it is unquestionable impact on the mental and / or emotional development of each child. These effects can express yourself short or long term, whether positive or negative direction. Television, it should be used, who are raising children in particular benefit of those children. This should be done in a balanced and healthy environment where the care of the parents (or guardians) are important determinants of mental and emotional growth and development.

Najib Alta Well

Source by Najib Altawell

The most powerful telescope fits in your pocket

Shrinking the telescope "Astronomers have made over the past 50 years is amazing discoveries, we expanded our understanding of the universe and opened humanity's vision beyond the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. knowledge that the cosmos was born and many of the phenomena arise grown in a single human life. despite these great strides there is a fundamental question that is largely unanswered. to further understanding of the way the current universe formed after the Big Bang skills in a new Observatory do not currently available or existing terrestrial or space telescope. "

the bigger better terms within it is embodied in our consciousness that just the idea less effective telescope seems to defy the laws of science. Yet, science always supports miniature size telescopes. However, this is a fundamental principle of understanding the focus lock, which deprives us over the centuries. The research provided a complete understanding of this area of ​​science behind optical telescope operation, which contributed to the design of the next generation of telescopes. The size will be introducing a miniature telescope the size of a search engine is already used in current telescopes. Yet, these new generation telescopes solution will have a higher strength than even the highest known telescope.

lens and mirror manufacturing technology has improved considerably over the centuries. Using the computer, lasers, robotics and optics technologies to precision accuracy. Finally, reducing the size of the telescopes in the wearable device as small as a pair of glasses, in the not too distance future. Binoculars soon is very small (a few centimeters long) tube inserted headband. These are the advantages that the precise movement and provides shock-absorbing of the human head. A wide field of view comparable to the naked eye, stunning Focus, Infinity Zoom (limited only by light pollution and disturbance), and the brightness of color photography such as snapshots and live video. Headgear will be convenient, efficient and versatile. The design retains the ability to be customized and upgraded. Almost 400 years of telescope development, we finally have a revolutionary breakthrough science has been able to convert telescopes and create a revolutionary optical instruments to shrink a football-sized search, and finally a pair of glasses. Welcome to the new age technology telescope.

The Impossible made possible – As the technological achievements into the future to find ways to do the impossible. Continuously improve the existing technology by making smaller and more efficient. In many cases, the smaller the more integrated designs increase efficiency broad categories. Now, manufacturing tools suitable microscopic scale, except the optical telescope. Optical Telescope is the only tool that actually grow in size rather than decreasing. As we move forward in research and development of these tools, it grows larger with each new generation. This is all the astronomer's dream, to have access to a high resolving power telescope, but small enough to carry around.

However, it is embedded in our heads that we are unable to increase the resolution of reduced size on one design. In this connection, the engineers continue to build larger and larger devices, which monsters and giants. The reason miniature size telescopes is considered impossible lie not only in optical science, but a vague understanding of the principles of light. It still does not understand the complex interactions involved in both viewing and capturing images, until now. This uncertainty, so there are still two different theories of light. considered as light as a particle that speeds up point A to point B, and can be viewed in the light waves that transmit through the wave motion. If one theory does not make sense to the rest of the staff. Miniature telescopes size is based on the "Theory of Unify Light".

Science – Our eyes are very unique: a young disciple widens between 2 and 7 millimeters, though, the eyes have the opportunity to take photos of thousands of meters in diameter. Wide field of view convincingly proves that we look at pictures of converging rays, not parallel rays. The converging image rays obeys the inverse square law of electromagnetic radiation. The converging rays describe rays convert to points. Therefore, carried by these rays image of the cross-sectional area to reduce long-distance travel. Images collected by the largest telescope aperture, actually step into the eyes of a few millimeters. Small visual angle (real field) to a second-degree, so small brain finds it difficult to isolate the data in the recognition that, when taking into account the entire field of view. These small-angle information, the compression of our large field of view, and it seems that only a small stain or become invisible.

However, enlargement provides the means by which a small visual angles formed larger. The refractor telescope aperture of 30 mm and 120 mm focal length (focal point ratio of f / 4), which has a magnifying power of 5 times, and there is a 5 mm exit pupil. This is a very bright binoculars, 7 millimeter tapping opening close to the maximum of the student. If another telescope was constructed with the same mesh size of 30 millimeters, but it has a focal length of 1200 mm (f / 40). The magnifying power is 50x times. Instead of a 5 mm exit pupil, the exit pupil is now a telescope such as 0.5 millimeters. From the same formula to obtain a 50x times magnifying power and 5 mm exit pupil, the required opening is 300 mm.

refractor telescope does not get affected by disorders without 7 mm exit pupil. In order to do this, telescope designers try to allocate the balance of magnification and brightness. It describes the resolution of this balance. The compromise reduces the brightness, but it increases the magnification and image clarity in equal proportions. The eye plays an important role in finalizing the text shown in the area. They have the ability to influence the field of view, magnification and exit pupil (brightness). A short focal length ocular with great magnifying power, small field of view, and short exit pupil; while a long focal ophthalmic offers a little magnifying power, wide-field and long exit pupil. This example shows that the magnification is inversely proportional to the diameter of the exit pupil and exit pupil is proportional to the brightness.

The larger the right formula, we know that increasing the aperture of the objective to increase the exit pupil, and thus the brightness of the image. A number of optical aberrations restrictions set design modems telescope design. Design of optical systems, optical engineers need to have the opposite effects in controlling aberrations to achieve the desired results. Aberrations any errors that may result in imperfections in the picture. Such errors may result in design or manufacture, or both.

achromatic lenses designed to reduce chromatic aberration created when the white light is broken, but even the best plans, chromatic aberration can not be completely ruled out. Colour is also an error, a secondary effect of the so-called secondary spectrum. The longer the focal ratio, the lighter becomes the secondary spectrum. Color error limits most refractory focal point ratio of f / 15 Headlights, which are less affected by chromatic aberration, is a focal ration of f / 5 commercial design and f / 2.5 professional plans. Within this known telescope design, the various conditions necessary for integrated picture-perfect, thus forcing engineers to compromise, so a close balance will allow for the best possible image.

What if the zoom, focus and brightness can be separated? The new formula âEUR ~ Miniature Size Telescopes "isolates the factors listed and allow all to be tuned for maximum efficiency.

The Desire magnification Powe r " The overwhelmingly Large Telescope (OWL) is a fantastic project which requires international efforts. This huge telescope primary mirror would be more than 100 meters in diameter and is 40 times better resolution than the Hubble Space Telescope. This is a telescope primary mirror the size of a foot ball field. "

should be more magnifying power began in Galilee design. Researches and studies to improve the telescope's magnification shown to increase the magnification is directly proportional to the difference between the focal length of the objective and the eyepiece (ocular) where the ophthalmic lens focal length shorter. two of the competition to build the most powerful telescope began early in the telescope development. the largest of the then compete to dominate the development of new technology.

At this age, telescopic tube has been very long. At times, the length of these pipes can reach, so that stable. in some cases, the tubes are removed from the device design. Tubeless telescopes called antenna telescopes. As telescopes Engineers compete to develop more powerful telescopes they unknowingly met a secondary problem that limits the length and magnification of these premature "refractor 'telescope designs. You notice that the images are dark to increase the magnification. Some how, zooming reduces the amount of light entering the telescope lens and either quit. The explanation for this phenomenon was that enough light can not leave the telescope's eye, the light is not sufficient picked a target. The increase in the aperture size increases the exit pupil and the problem of dark image magnification solved.

At this stage, invented the telescope in development, and only Kepler Galilei- "refractor" telescopes. Lens was taken in the early stages, and it was hard to manufacture quality lenses. High Brightness lenses have an even greater challenge. Refractor Telescope will soon reach "limit the size, but now that the second part of the formula for high resolving known reflector telescope more variation born.

To date, almost 400 years later, the same formula is still used. Modem improvement only increases the optical qualities can now be used with modification minimal aberration. now you can build bigger telescopes on the resolving power and brightness are not taught possible in the time of Galileo, but the formula used in developing these modem means the same as the earliest designs and larger, more better. the bigger is better formula is not without limitations. For example, chromatic aberration limits the brightness of a refractor telescope, which requires a focal ratio of f / T 5 eliminate secondary spectrum aberrations. the required contact ratio limits the collection of photographs and abilities refractor. Reflectors does not affect the secondary effect spectrum. Focal ratio range ff2.5 reasonable exit pupil when requiring nearly 7 millimeters. However, any attempt to increase the magnification telescopes including reflectors, while the brightness, you will need to increase the aperture and focal length equal proportions. It is these characteristics that make the sentence âEUR ~ bigger is better "so compelling

Previous limitations -.. Rewarded us with the light of the principles Understanding of advanced optical technology of this article is written, . to introduce a breakthrough in the research and development of small telescopes most large telescopes manufacturer informs that enlargement is not a priority, and that the brightness should be a more pronounced concern receiver when shopping for a telescope magnification and brightness are important for viewing. and capturing distant images, but the most important factor for the data to include an image in focus. all the basic principle when capturing an image focus less well known. awareness is the center of the image, and how to achieve focus images can be easily calculated, but what about the electrodynamics interactions that are members of the focus of the picture is still unanswered

design of all optical devices around the focus,. so you will always be a top priority for the development of a clear picture. Magnification and brightness are of secondary importance, these are the results after the field. This is the critical distance focus is to determine the maximum magnification and brightness, which they viewed a picture. Zoom described in converting small visual angle (real field) activities of larger (apparent field), it provides a change in the angle at which the image rays received so tricking the brain into believing that the object or closer to, or greater than it really. If it were not for the need to focus on a convex lens âEUR "a magnifying glass would be a telescope capable of infinite zoom scale, by the action of simply distance varying believed the eye. Unfortunately, there is critical remote, where the images focused on a single lens or even a system of lenses is also known as the critical distance, the focus

We concentrate Webster's Dictionary..? fo-ke the distinctness and clarity with which the optical system makes the photo

four hundred years of history -.. the discovery of distant magnification was an accident Early lens manufacturer, Jan Lippershey experimented with two different lenses when he discovered the effects of distant magnification, we found that in the hands of one. a negative lens close to the eye, while a positive lens in line with the first eyes to see distant objects is much closer than would be possible with the naked eye. Since then, research to understand and explain the science behind the magic tools even being attempted. Even with today's technology, telescope designers are still faced with significant design constraints and challenges to forge a compromise telescope size, brightness and sharpness. Scientists have always been puzzled by the nature of light. Sir Isaac Newton, light as a stream of tiny particles travel straight. Christian Huygens Dutch scientists, on the other hand, so that the light waves material was called the ether, what hypothetical filling space, including a vacuum. Huygens concept has become accepted as the better of the two theories. Today, however, scientists believe that light is a stream of tiny pockets of energy called photons wave.

The Bigger is Better Formula "The telescope, which is 10 times the collecting area of ​​every telescope ever built, you would be able to go down several thousand times fainter than the faintest thing. I see todayâEUR ~ s telescopes. "

the formula that is known with telescopes for centuries development is pretty basic, well-known and proven- bigger the better. This is the same as that of the larger aperture brighter images, while in the case of longer focal lengths greater magnification. Even so, it's a formula set in stone? Suppose the formula to the test. It may be acquired without the long focal length lens with high magnification? The answer is yes. Microscope, which is very high magnification relatively short focal length lens. It is possible to collect the light without a large aperture size? Again, the answer is yes. Microscope is proof of this. So why is it that high-magnification microscopes provide sufficient brightness is a relatively small, while the telescopes can not? This shows that neither brightness can not zoom in on the act, but the device design limitations that cling to the concept that bigger is better. Kepler telescope functions of a basic design as seen through a microscope, the other end of the tube. The fact that the telescope is essentially inverted microscope, you can see that close relationship between the two.

The international standard microscope ensures full pupil size as 400x magnifying power, even with such a microscope is a tube of less than 20 centimeters in length. Sufficient light is reflected from the "flat-o-convex mirror is less than 7 cm in diameter. In order to make the same brightness and magnifying power of a telescope focal ratio of f / 2.5 is recommended exit pupil nearly 7 mm. Such a telescope requires an opening of 320 cm ( 3.2 meters), and a focal length of 800 cm (8 meters), calculating roughly a 20 mm eye. This is an increase of almost 50 times in size. This shows that the brightness is not limited to limited to the high-brightness or zoom in long focal lengths. however, the "bigger is better" formula design limitations that surface only in distant magnification. focus on distant images is more challenging than focusing on close images. We can prove it only magnifying glass that is held close to the eyes. Objects more then 2/3 focal length of the lens is out of focus.

design of all optical systems around the focus. in order to change the magnification and brightness, attention is considered to be stable. We can impair brightness and magnification Visa a- verse, but we will never endanger your focus. Therefore, instead of saying that magnification M is inversely proportional to the light intensity, it is also accurate to say that magnification m is equal to the focus divided by the brightness B, which focus on a constant D.

M = D / B

magnification (M) = constant focus on information, (D) / Brightness (B) within an optical telescope design, all three factors are integrated. Focus was the primary factor in making a clean image, while the zoom and brightness can also serve as a secondary factor in the appearance of a focused image. Known optical systems, focus, brightness, zoom in and inseparable. The resolving power is used to summarize the performance of a telescope. Create the telescope is able to imprint details within an image. An image of an imprint on some of the points that come together to form a complete picture. Magnifying images are providing these points. Light magnification is much different from the picture to zoom in and magnify images obtained by changing the angle of the light.

But there is a breakthrough question, what if these three important factors can be isolated and separately tuned? Hm mm. Telescope engineering will not be the same again, and the science of astronomy will explode.

Source by Nathaniel Douglas

Communication Effect

The system for sending messages or one place to another place in the communication of information.

understand the communication and the communication system. Understand the familiar developments such as mobile, fax, computer, e-mail, and Telecommunications.

used in ancient times to several days to send a message or add the information to remote locations. But today you can send messages anywhere in the world thanks to the rapid development in the field of communication. The message can be written on pieces of audio, video or film. Today, people use the Telegraph, radio, television, telephone, fax, mobile, video phone, pager, etc. via telegraph, messages can be sent in the form of words. For example: If you want to send a message "Happy Birthday" to a friend. Going to a nearby post office and sends the message to the address. This message reaches a friend for a few hours. The most common tool used for telephone communications. We can talk to a person anywhere in the world via telephone. Depending on the distance of communication with the people, the service can be divided into three categories on the phone. The system sends information or a message from one place to another place known telecommunications. Fax, written material and photos can be sent. The phone calls are grouped local calls, subscriber trunk dialing, International Subscribes dialing. You can reach any part of the required information to the world via the Internet. A modified form of postal service e-mail.

Speaking on the phone while driving, or even walking is not surprising. Here, the mobile phone as a receiver and transmitter. Radio waves are created between two people who communicate with each other. Fax modified version of a telegraph. The written material can be sent by fax images. Ex: If you want to send a cartoon story in a newspaper, to feed the fax your details. The cartoon story written a paper through the fax to the newspaper office because the phone line should be able to do this, Fax Number newspaper office.

Each be well equipped with a means to communicate effectively, regardless of whether the person in front, or in the workplace. In fact, according to the management gurus to be a good communicator won half the battle. After all, when one speaks and listens, you have little or no place in misunderstanding. So keep this fact in mind, the primary reason for the misunderstanding is unable to talk or listen effectively.

The communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non-verbal messages. This is a continuous process. Prerequisite for the communication of a message. It is a medium to convey this message to the recipient. It is important that the recipient should be understood that the same conditions as the sender of this message. You have to answer within the time frame. Hence, communication is a process, not complete without feedback from the recipient to the sender how well he understood the message.

There is a lot of communication barriers nowadays all. The message is not understood by the sender and the receiver point in the same conditions, and thus the communication breaks down. It is essential to deal and cope with these communication barriers to the smooth and efficient communication.

This is extremely important to not only communicate, but also to communicate effectively. Please highlight the first case, when Lisa was insufficient to support. He is her presentation, she communicates, why denied promotion? It does not communicate effectively. The trick is to not only communicate, but communicate effectively. And if you can communicate effectively, the world is yours.

Communication process is a simple process in which a message is transferred from the sender to the receiver. The buyer, after receiving the message understands the message to the desired shape, and then proceed accordingly. Not every individual is born with good communication skills; it is inherited in due time the individual moves through the various stages of life. Art communication skills that must be mastered to feel the presence of the people stand apart from the crowd and appear as a strong leader in all areas of life.

Do not always depend on verbal communication in the workplace. After all verbal communication with staff, make it a habit to send the minutes of the meeting, the important points or by e-mail the nomination to cc all participants. It all depends, planners, organizers, and write down the important points of the date set as the deadline to complete a given task. the recipient must use boards, papers and participants during presentations should carry a notepad to avoid forgetting any point.

intra-personal communication skills: This means that individual reflection, contemplation and meditation. One example of this transcendental mediation. According to experts, this type of communication includes communicating with the divine spirit and the form of prayers and ceremonies and rituals.

interpersonal communication skills: This is a direct, face-to-face communication between two persons. This is essentially a dialogue or a conversation between two or more people. This personal direct and intimate, and allows for maximum interaction with the words and gestures. Interpersonal communication is probably

focused Interactions: This primarily occurs when the encounter between two people. This means that the two persons concerned are fully aware of the communication takes place between them.

Trend interactions: This occurs when one merely observes and listens to the people with whom one is not talking. This usually occurs stations and bus stops, as well as on the street, in restaurants, etc.

Non-verbal communication skills: This includes aspects such as body language, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, etc., which will also become part of the communicating process; as well as written, typed modes of communication.

communication, such as group discussions. Remember that it is not the only one talking to the group discussions; there are other players who are vying for the spotlight. You may have only one chance and you simply can not afford to miss the opportunity to create that first impression, and as they say the first impression is the last impression. An individual can have complete knowledge of the topic assigned to the group, it may be well aware of what was happening, but if you can not effectively communicate your ideas with others, you do not create the signal. The way an individual communicates his ideas have been very impressive for him to live up to the expectations of the decision-making authorities.

Teddy published an interview with a reputed media house. He was eyeing the company for quite a long time. He went very well with the round face and was looking forward to getting selected organization. Unfortunately, something else was in store for him. He could not get through a round of GD. He is exceptionally good scientists, it was a healthy professional background, and even the ideas expressed in the best possible way, a group discussion. The problem was his communication level. He tries the level best, but failed to impress the interviewer and thus lost out on your dream job.


thoughts in words of art and one of the master, to win the trust of the evaluation. One has to be very clever and carefully select the right words to share ideas with other participants, and his point is clear. Never use slangs instead prefer a corporate professional jargons or terminology you want to live. Also avoid jokes in from the consideration, very unprofessional. The individual does not falter between half or chew his words. Speak clearly and never voice shaking. There is no one who beat there, why are afraid to get a group discussion?

Nobody will draw the signals if to greet the other participants as well. Warm greetings and never forget the handshake meeting. These gestures can really help break the ice and create a bond between the participants. Someone should start a debate, why not? The initiative and start a discussion. Introduce yourself and your team members as well. Never believe a personal favor. If any party refuses to talk, do not force him unnecessarily. If someone is well-spoken, do not hesitate to give him a pat on the back. Such non-verbal communication can sometimes go a long way in boosting the morale of the participants. Be very confident to win the confidence of the interviewer and the other participants.

The pitch and tone should be taken good care of. You do not speak for ourselves, but for others listen and respond. Always check that can be heard for one and all. All participants must be able to clearly hear and understand what you want to convey. The individual must also learn the art of voice modulation. Do not hold the same course always; learn to play the sound as an important word or phrase. If you want to raise a question as to the other participants, it will also be reflected in your voice. Avoid shouting too loud or group discussions. You are voice your opinion, do not fight. Keep the tone polite, soft but persuasive. Never sound stupid or unintelligent as the constant questioning eyes. Do not take care of punctuation and the tirade. It does not hurt to breath or to pause between sentences. No repeat phrases it leads to monotony, and others tend to ignore you. They do not just talk for the sake of talking.

Always remember there are other individuals who participate in a group discussion. They may not be the same background as you, it may be a completely different thought process, but you have no right to make fun of their views. Always keep in their minds. If a participant speaks, never criticize or against it between the two. You get the time to talk and wait your turn. The individual has to be very patient, calm, dignified, sophisticated and above all professional position. An individual who passes the information to others for sharing thoughts and ideas with them is called the shipper. (First half) of the person who receives the information from the sender and respond accordingly to give him the feedback is called up. (Second half). The communication process the information reaches the receiver exactly the same form you want the speaker. If the recipient does not provide feedback to the speaker, communication is seen as ineffective and incomplete.

it did not notice any message transmission of message. This mutual understanding, from the receiver. Communication should be an effective business.

The essence of governance

release. The basic functions of management (planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling) can not be done without having to do effective communication. In constant communication with business information. Feedback is an integral part of business communication. Organizations today are very large. This includes the number of persons. There are different levels of hierarchical organization. Larger number of the levels, the more difficult the task of managing the organization. Communication plays a very important role in the management and control processes in the human body. Immediate feedback can be obtained, and if misunderstandings can be avoided. There should be effective communication between the superior and subordinate to an organization, the organization and society as a whole (such as management and unions). It is essential to the success and growth of the organization.

Communication gaps can not occur in any organization. The targeted business communications. The rules, regulations and policies of the company shall be communicated to the people within and outside the organization. Business communication is governed by certain rules and norms. In the early days, the business communication is limited to paperwork, phone calls, etc. But now the advent of technology, we have cell phones, video conferencing, e-mail, support for satellite communications and business communications. Effective business communication helps in building goodwill of an organization.

Business Communication can be two types:

• Verbal Communication

• Written Communication

Oral communication – verbal communication can be formal or informal. In general, business communication formal means of communication such as meetings, discussions, group discussions, speeches, etc. An example would be an informal business communications – Grapevine. Oral communication includes communicating through the mouth. This includes individuals talking to each other, whether direct conversation or telephone call. Speeches, presentations, conversations all forms of verbal communication. Oral communication is usually recommended when the transient communication material and, if necessary direct involvement. Face to face communication (meetings, seminars, conferences,

interviews, etc.), in order to build up a rapport and trust.

Written communication – written business communication includes – agendas, reports, manuals, etc. Written communication is of great importance in today's business world. This is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential worthy of promotional materials for business development. His speech came before writing. But the writing is unique and more formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful of words, phrases development organization in the correct order and cohesion of the composition of sentences. Furthermore, writing more valid and reliable than the speech. But while the spontaneous speech, there is a delay in writing and will take time as the feedback is not immediate.

Benefits of written communication

Written communication will help you down the apparent organizational principles and rules of operation.

This is a permanent means of communication. Thus, useful where a record maintenance is required.

promotes the right of responsibilities. While oral communication, it is impossible to capture and assign responsibilities based on the speech, as you may need to take the speaker or she is willing to admit.

Written communication more accurate and clear.

Effective correspondence occurs, and enhance the image of the body.

provides a finished record and references.

Legal protection

Effective and efficient communication system requires managerial expertise in delivering and receiving. A manager must discover the various barriers to communication, analyze the reasons for their occurrence and preventive measures to avoid these obstacles. Thus, the primary role of the manager is to develop and maintain an effective communication system of the body.

do not need to communicate effectively in today's difficult scenario and the tips above definitely go a long way to improve the communication skills of people.

Source by Shanmuga S

Evolution of Telephone – The road first phone VoIP phone

Nobody knows the fact that the inventor of the first telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in March 1876. This is where the field of telecommunications in modern times takes roots.

the invention does not collect a lot of attention, which Bell said low expectations, but it was the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, where the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro de Alcantara noticed this rather interesting man-made invention. He could not help but be amazed bell profound creativity, reflected in the creation of the phone.

In the early days, the phone is only seen as a luxury rather than a commodity of life. Only gain greater popularity as an essential medium of communication, when many corporate and government offices started to use it.

In 1880, when the metal circuits were introduced, took a long-distance communication. However, to a decade of use was restricted to a certain class who could afford to pay the cost of the call is difficult. Until the 1890s it became the party line appearance, comfortable people living in rural areas, especially to share the cost of the line is used by many.


1891, by the exchange of service calls, but as long as the new system of direct dialing system. Then there was the best use of your phone installed in 1927 when the first transatlantic phone call made using radio waves. That was all the time in the First and Second World War, when the phone has gone through a significant period of development, all thanks to the huge expenses that are more secure communications to ensure the defense ministry of the whole. These series of developments have also created the first mobile system that can be easily connected to mobile phones using radio waves of vehicles.

60 pm, the transatlantic cables were introduced to make it easier to call international calls.

However, the biggest shifts seen in the history of phones was in 1962, when the first telephone, satellite Telstar was launched. Telstar was a joint business venture between Bell and NASA for brining a more advanced form of communication. This paved the way for geosynchronous satellites orbit in question must be used to make long distance calls directly without relying on the cable lines, not to mention suffering because of recurring pain in cable damage and repair.

Fiber optic cables were first mid 1977, 80, optical cable took priority over other modes of telephone transmission, you can facilitate a greater number of calls is less interference compared to its predecessor methodologies. This information can be transmitted more quickly to more remote areas, and strongly resisted the accident, especially lightning. In short, it offered many advantages and safer than other modes. Because of the benefits, they also began to use fiber optic cables to computers.

After the US government takes away control of telephone service, AT & T met face a stiff competition from MCI, Sprint and many other local companies. This paved the way for fiber optic lines used immensely in all industries, and even began to use gas pipelines and railroad tracks.

This was in 1973, when Dr. Martin Cooper, Motorola has created for the first wireless phone call the handset, that is, with Dyna-Tac. After you complete a successful test run, they were introduced to the New York Public. That was in 1977, when the mobile phone has become popular among the people. Initially, the model was introduced slightly larger and are often used for those who used to stay in touch with the two-way radio communication mode. At that time, one could not imagine that I will use all. Cell phones worked little "cells" range of services to enhance the management of multi-facility call. Mobile phones allowed to participate in a greater number of calls at one time in one area.

Initially, however, used instead of the primary analog cellular service system technology, which operated at 800 MHz unceasingly. As time goes by, the industry standard has increased to 1850 MHz PCS. a committee, namely the Cellular Technology Industry Association was founded in 1988 to provide guidance and set the rules of the service provider and worked in the development and growth of the mobile phone industry. Today, there are about more than 60 million mobile phone customers in the vast wealth of services that just started working on the market only thirty years ago.

Today, instead of a digital cellular / mobile phones Analog phones. Digital technology transfer as a "pulse". The advantage of digital signs that they are more securely transmitted compared to competing analog, and it provides a more efficient bandwidth and higher quality sound. You can also share videos and images while surfing the Internet. All at once integrated into the phone.

However, the digital technology we have a problem of coverage. For example, because of three different technologies in mobile phone use, in case of a TDMA (time-division multiple access) system, but to move in an area that requires a CDMA (code-division multiple access) digital coverage, then you may need to facing technological problems.

is a perfect solution, and the United analog to digital technology, which is transmitted to the mobile phone service providers. So you can get up high for all types of communications, high-speed and uncompromising quality.

talk about the first "audio-conference" that can ever be used when lines were introduced for the first time to participate in the first few days the phone. Although at the time, the only advantage of people looking for part-lines was the economic factor, but there was the problem that many people in different locations to pick up and talk at the same time, an interception position and zero privacy element.

The number of people calling the idea, which originated in part lines, revived again, but this time in a better and more personal package. There was a time limitations and can only be accessed in times of need him.

Following this concept, companies from all over the world have started to offer services that are coordinated in a conference call facility for companies, so they fixed prices, or a monthly fee based on the number of calls. It served as fertile for saving travel costs and other expenses the call. They provided links between the skilled manager allows all participants onto a dedicated line. Thus, a group of people can easily communicate with each other all at once. The service providers offer their customers an affordable price.

First, a lot of phone manufacturing companies namely Polycom, AT & T and Panasonic advanced office telephone systems that allowed office users to invite a client, put on hold, and dial another party. That helped the building of a multi-establish communications with the caller's easy to communicate with more than two people at a time to discuss important business deals.

came the Internet, which happens to be the best communication medium ever created in the entire history of mankind. The Internet had to compete with the telephone service provider, particularly in challenging the audio conference facility, and the cost of long distance calls. Despite this reduced calling costs to a greater extent, but the unbeatable broadband phone or internet phone is becoming everyone's favorite, beat the competitor – the traditional phone because it is much cheaper and affordable.

VoIP, which stands for "Voice Over Internet Protocol" is now the most popular medium of communication because it charges only for calls, regulatory, tax or hidden costs such as fees put traditional phone companies. VoIP phones use broadband telephone and high-speed internet works and let you enjoy the same quality of services offered to traditional phones. You can not just call VoIP phones, high-speed Internet phone services let you enjoy high-speed data services such as data sharing, audio and video conferencing. VoIP, you are guaranteed to save a lot of demands calling and communication.

offers VoIP audio conferencing opportunities to network multiple groups or parties, no matter what their geographical locations. This allows customers to connect with their customers worldwide and to have a virtual meeting online. Today we provide VoIP calling solutions, Axvoice, Vonage, 8×8, Voxwire, Packet 8 and Voice Cafe TTCGlobalTalk among many that high quality service.

Source by Aziz Ahmed

Pros and Cons of Television Advertising

strongest form

TV commercials advertising traditionally, as this combination of video and audio advertising messages with unlimited variety, unlike other means of advertising such as newspapers, magazines, radio stations and websites. Based on research reports, people spend four and a half hours watching television as the most common leisure activity. As a result, television is often considered the "king" of advertising media, like so much of an impact on people. It is also considered the "king" of the advertising costs (expensive).

Before a product is advertised, the market research in the consumer reaction to the product. Television marketing must follow a number of strict rules (restrictions). Television commercials proved successful election campaign of a politician could affect the public's views. On television, advertising, animation, advertising is very popular (Kellogg) and the long run (set of ads can be done). The OECD communications outlook 2001, the US television advertising shared 37% of total advertising revenue.

Advantages of TV advertising:

Although television advertising may not make an immediate sale, such as search advertising, it would significantly affect customers and slowly convince your target market.

· TV advertising will allow the product to reach large numbers of people (regional and national), in a short time.

· Television helps to transmit messages (advertising) of sight, sound and action.

· Ads can target local independent stations and local cable network channels.

· different segments of people, such as children, house wives, the young people targeted by the organization through various channels (cartoon) at different timings (time when many people watch TV).

· It has the flexibility and selectivity options for customers to choose a product offered by many companies.

· creative television commercials easily attracts people and makes them to buy products. This is very beneficial for small businesses.

Disadvantages of TV advertising:

· cost of television advertising is very high, as it should be repeated many times and therefore costs more commercials to air television channels.

· Television advertisements are short, so do not convey more about the product.

· Television advertising sometimes obscure (mess up) as they do not show relevant information products.

· If the television advertising creative is not, then people do not care to see, and do not buy the products.

· Some time will be TV advertising so that people do not believe you, so do not buy the products.

· It is difficult to change, unlike television commercials advertising in print media.

· Producing television advertising involves hiring scriptwriters, actors, video editors, or an advertising agency. So, it is a complicated procedure.

Television advertising has advantages and disadvantages. When properly selected and end on the right wing after helping businesses to reach their target customers flawlessly.

Source by Charles S Taylor

Selecting the Pros and Cons reflector telescope

There are two basic types of telescopes in the observatory in the garden, reflector and refractor and different ways to collect and focus light through the lens. The model will be discussed in this article, the reflector telescope. These telescopes use a series of small and large angled mirrors and reinforces the light of the stars and planets. It's hard to imagine that just use mirrors you will be able to see the rings of Saturn or pinwheels distant galaxies – but it works.

There are two basic designs of the reflector telescope – a Cassegrain and Newtonian. The Newton Sir Isaac Newton created the design for the first time, the renowned physicist of the 17th century. It concluded work on the optics, the lens of the period still suffering the dispersion of light color (known as chromatic aberration). In 1668 he built the first Newton telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass the problem of chromatic aberration.

This design is very simple, and very popular with novice stargazers. There is usually at the bottom of a large mirror in the telescope, which focuses on the image of another flat mirror, which then forwards the image to the eyepieces, where you can zoom in.

The second type of the Cassegrain type. This design is used at the bottom of the concave primary mirror of the telescope mirror is a convex secondary against him at the top of the pipe. The light enters through the top of the telescope's primary mirror and is reflected in her small mirror. This mirror in turn sends the light back through a hole in the primary mirror to the eyepiece. This design is a bit more complicated and therefore more expensive, but they work very well.

Benefits reflector telescopes

The telescope reflector telescope and a good all-around several advantages over the refractor-type telescopes. The pro side, the design of the reflector telescope is slightly less complicated than a refractor telescope. This makes these telescopes is generally less expensive, at least at the lower end. It also allows more magnifying power in a compact design. The larger models to a higher value for the money than the refractor telescope. Fast focal ratio makes it an efficient reflector telescope for viewing very faint objects in deep space.

Disadvantages reflector telescopes

Although the telescope reflector telescope all-around good especially for amateur astronomers, this is not without some drawbacks. The setting of the mirror can be a bit delicate and transportation problems if not done very carefully. The medium-sized and larger versions of these telescopes are usually larger than the refractor models. The lower end models usually have a distorted image and a significant amount of maintenance involved cleaning and alignment of the mirrors.

Like any telescope, there are always advantages and disadvantages to consider when looking to buy. The reflector telescope efficient and easy to use so you get the best deal for amateur astronomers and star gazers. It is definitely worth considering in reflector telescope when researching which will be telescopes for you.

Source by Debbie Thomas

The Evolution of the Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell probably had no idea that he discovered that ultimately change the world in more ways than you can imagine. The technology, which was launched phones has led to several discoveries in the field of telecommunications to keep people in touch and connected to the world.

The first few days

March 10, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell first speech mediated by the use of electricity. From that day on, the phone system has changed every aspect of life. Despite not immediately change the world, you have to communicate in the way that would change the future of communication.

lack of acceptance of the initial discovery of Mr. Bell was due to the telegraph to the dominant form of communication and it's been around for more than 50 years. This is the voice of the whole electrical wiring that Mr. Bell has proposed a new and frightening discovery.

In the late 1870s, Bell took a public telephone demonstrations on the road in an attempt to draw attention to the project and public finance. Mr. Bell introduced the telephone as a broadcast system.

Initially, only two line phones. In June30, 188 287 phones were installing July was 750. Ten years later it would be over 167 000 phones and a maze of wires. (Pool, Ithiel de Sola, _The Social impact of Telephone_, Cambridge, MIT Press, 1977).

Technology Mr.

. Bell was the only person working on ideas that would affect the telephone technology. Thomas Edison invented the first transceiver would be impractical for commercial use. Have they invented a kind of multiplexer, which made it possible to what message sent in opposite directions simultaneously.

There are many more changes come in the next few years, and AT & T in 1885 to build homes and offices leased phones, but remaining in the ownership of the technology.

Then in 1880 came the switchboard on board. During this time, there was no dialing, no warning system, and there is no electronic switches. Callers would crank handle; get an operator who will connect them to the party and then the conversation. This type of system was no bell to alert for incoming calls and no encryption because market players are the middle man holding the call together.

1946 number telephone switchboard operator jobs callers made too many people to handle alone. Nearly quarter of a million entrepreneurs working with AT & T in 1946, but this figure is considerably reduced in the present invention, the automatic call switching.

Although the switching system was found in 1889, it was not until 1914 that is installed on a large scale basis in New Jersey. Then it was not until 1976 was the first computer switches into action and in 1982 almost half of all telephone calls were exchanged electronically.

Turning the Century

Bell patent ran out of the turn of the century, and about 6,000 independent telephone companies opened shop. These independent companies can only connect locally, AT & T did not allow them to turn the national system. Instead, he waited for the little guy to go bankrupt, and then bought them.

In 1984, AT & T local telephone service got out at the end of a ten-year-old lawsuit push into the telecom giant. This has resulted in the formation, known as the "baby bells". This break also allowed users own their phones, and hang them on their devices.

Prior to the 20th century used phone systems twisted copper wires, which are costly to install and absorbed a large electric power. In the coming years would see copper wire gives way coaxial cables and microwave station and a communications satellite.

digital transmission, although not new, has not come to the phone to play a big way until the 1980s. Fiber-optic cables, digital transmission up to 125,000 times faster than a copper cable. Copper is still in use in many areas because of the high cost of running fiber optic cable in every home, although many areas have been replaced by fiber optic cable line.

Too phone

Once you have mastered the basic telephone and via communication over long distances, is still in the development of technology waiting to be discovered. The fax phone lines using a modem receiving digital signals, which decodes the signals messages. Then came the mobile or cell phone.

Mobile phones released in 1980 and is now in use millions. the use of mobile networks to regular phone jack system is a computer-controlled centers and towers to transmit the messages. Originally, there were some transmission towers and mobile phones were bulky and had to use near towers in order to clear transmission.

Within a few years, the phones became small enough to fit in the palm of a hand and the towers were located almost everywhere. Although there are zones of poor reception, most of the mobile phone is always a usable space.

Today, mobile phones are not much more than making voice chat, mobile phones allow access to the Internet, e-mail, business applications, pictures, and much more.

Source by Sam D Goddard

Telephone Training – the structure is an efficient Telephone Call

Each dial-up connection is important, and training of personnel handling all calls professionally and effectively is essential. Phone skills training should be a continuous shortening. Refresher training is good for all.

The aims of the training

The aim of the course is twofold:

1. To update end, the caller and the goal of every phone call

2. To upgrade the skills from the beginning of each call to close the

The aim is to clarify the focus of the intern, the intern's attention and increase the use of effective skills every call.

When you look at the call of the call structure itself is a great way to improve your skills during the call.

call set up staff training

Every phone call is a structure. The structure is made up of the basic stages or phases of the phone call, the greeting tight. The call establishment may vary. The credit-control structure of the call to another call Customer Service. The complaint call handling is another simple structure, Customer queries.

It is important to work out the key stages of the typical calls and to use the training to improve his technique at each stage. For example, what good is a welcome? What a good way to ask? We are not a good way that we should avoid?

When handling difficult calls, it is very important to check that the early stages of the call is made effectively to the management of the entire call professionally.

The call Customer structure

a good call structure of a standard phone call Customer Service

first Good greeting. always start with the greeting good morning or good afternoon. Not only is this a good way of greeting someone, but it also ensures that the first word of the caller positive. The welcome is to identify the company or department and name of the person receiving the call. Which provides the name of the person calling.

2. first response is positive. declare the caller's inquiry or request. Again, the first thing you need to hear, must be positive. Of course, I can help you, or not a problem at all, I was happy to help.

3. Good question. The representative will ask questions to tease out the matter and ensure that the necessary information to assist you. The questions are often seen as aggressive or pushy. Already the team reports to ask to make sure you do not create side effects. A good way to do this for a workout that you first ask the questions wrong, then ask the same questions you very much. The group then analyzes the bad and the good, to identify the difference

4. Listening and listening to answers. When the caller does not answer the question, the representative to repeat the numbers are the most important details or to respond encouragingly to the caller. This is to ensure information is correct and that there is no silence.

5. Confirmed understanding. This is a key stage in the call, which is often overlooked. The representative sums up the question or query back to the caller, and confirmed them that they correct the problem. There are two main advantages of this phase of the call. One is that the representatives actually ensure that you get it right before it provides a solution. The other is that the caller will receive a very positive feeling that the representatives heard, and also that he understands. An angry caller or a tricky situation, this phase is the key to handling this invitation, I said that to them!

6 solution. At this point, the representative of providing information or solutions. It uses a positive, strong language instead of negative, submissive or aggressive language. Even if you do not offer a solution, it can still be positive and helpful. The format is Unfortunately, you do not know this, but I would suggest that . It must be ensured that there is a positive opportunities offered.

7. gain the caller's agreement. Actual representative will ask closed questions to gain the caller's agreement and smoothly towards the close of the call.

8. Close call. There is an alternative closure of the different types of calls. Remember to close the last thing we remember the calling party will, ensuring that positive.

Source by Kate Tammemagi

A Brief History of Television Advertising

all started, Radio

Broadcasting was originally, as the company is to sell the radios. But once the trade unions have recognized that many households are listening to the radio a considerable amount of time each day, they began to explore this medium as a way to get their message across to the masses. If one has to choose a single event began in the era of radio, this is probably transmitted by radio broadcast station WEAF in New York City August 28, 1922 This is a ten minute advertisement for suburban apartment building. For Christmas that year, several major New York City department stores have joined the fray, and ran advertisements in stores.

In the late 20's radio spots merger dramatically. This is now dominated by advertising agencies who took control of schedules available by purchasing and selling airtime to their clients. It also handles the creative aspects of advertising and programs, and in fact created a whole series designed to sell a product or another. These efforts paved the way for television advertising of Genesis, which begins a few decades.

Early unified support

living telecasting not really hold until 1948 took that long for the US to recover from the Depression and the Second World War. At that time, the number of television sets reached the critical mass to be considered a medium that can reach the masses. The television was a completely new phenomenon – that offer both audio and video clips, the advertising industry has moved into the arena with caution because they were not sure what would be the best ways to promote products on television clients. In other words, it should still be treated like radio advertising, but snap pictures or a completely new approach must be taken to reach a television audience a meaningful and effective manner?

After a number of studies and surveys to advertising agencies concluded that the most effective way to get consumers would be a powerful message by showing that featured a product or a range of products in one company. From this arose the concept of the typical television show in the 1950s, including such titles Kraft Television Theater, Colgate Comedy Hour, and cola time. As these radio television programs produced by the advertising agencies for its customers, rather than the studio, which is currently common practice.

This practice has worked well in the customers for a while. But as the television gained more popularity and more people were watching the increase in television networks, the cost of business (ie more eyeballs = spent more total dollars to reach them), and that the upward pressure on the cost of transporting the production of television band (plus the increasing cost of new content) forced a massive change in the relationship of all parties: advertising agencies, clients / sponsors and television networks. The solution had to be found, if it was a very effective advertising medium that continues to cost the sponsors.

Enter the Era Magazine Concept advertising

NBC executive Sylvester L. "Pat" Weaver created a solution that works, and it is also very affordable networks. He introduced the "magazine concept" television advertising. In this arrangement, the supporters purchase blocks of time (usually 1-2 minutes) rather indicates that the sponsor an entire show. This idea would allow the various sponsors – up to four the number was imagined – a show. Like a magazine, the networks would be directed to the advertiser's content to anyone "own" a particular program.

Like all new ideas, it initially resisted Masisi Avenue but after some experimentation, they found that this method could very well work with various packaged goods manufacturers cornucopia of brand names such as Procter and Gamble, such a difference products Tide (detergent), spine (toothpaste), and Jif (peanut butter).

1960 magazine concept is dominated by television advertising, because ever since. Instead of identifying the audience in a given program, sponsors have been spread that message through the schedule in order to attract more consumers as possible. The ability to spread advertising dollars to reach a wider segment of the population has proven to be very effective for sponsors. Where once they were locked in a specific time every day or every week block a particular network, you can now choose the times and the networks where they wanted their message.

This development concept of the magazine advertising is really the birth of modern television commercials. The only exception is the infomercial, which is actually a throwback to the model used in the sponsorship program in the early days of television commercials.

Source by Steven Chabotte